Invasive species

We do not focus on “introduced” species or neophytes, as it is a novel, reconstructed ecosystem, constantly reshaped in the course of the last 120 years. The threshold and timelines between “introduced” and “native” is difficult, if not impossible, to establish, like a baseline for their control.

The major “introduced” species is European-origin humans, leading to other “exotics”.

The term “exotic” or “introduced” usually means recent introductions. As there is no information on the ecosystem of the beginning of the XX century (pre-fires), it is difficult to certify that “native” fauna and flora are not results of these fires and European-originated colonisation.

The damaging character of the invasiveness of some species is greatly facilitated by the deplorable state of the ecosystem, brutal recent annihilation of “native” species, continuous human pressure and climate change.

Invasive species in the PPAP, requiring control:


The most damaging: Rosa mosqueta (“exotic” or “native”, depending on the baseline)

= Rosa rubiginosa.

It is linked to cows presence: in the PPAP where previously there were only sheep, there is no rosa mosqueta. If cows were present - rosa mosqueta appeared. Confirmed by work of interns from Chilean universities. Main possible entry point of cattle in the PPAP now, and therefore threat of transport of rosa mosqueta seeds - Laguna San Rafael national park.

Considered as valuable “native Chilean rose” in Europe (see skin treatments made of rosa mosqueta). Still planted in the region for its fruit.

Ecologia de rosa mosqueta.pdf

Rosa mosqueta: una planta invasora que compite con la vegetación nativa | GEFEEI.pdf


Lodgepole pine = Pinus contorta (“exotic”): planted extensively in

the region by forestry business until recently, not any longer

due to its invasive character.

Retamo = Ulex europaeus (partly “exotic”)

Calafate = Berberis microphylla (part of “native” cycle).

Chapel = Escallonia virgata (part of “native” cycle).

LupinsGenisteae (“exotic”).

Herbarium of the PPAP


Yellowjackets, wasps (“exotic”).

European bumblebee (“exotic”).


Stray dogs and cats are becoming a real problem in the region, severely damaging the originally wild animals.

Mice (“native”) : hantavirus carrier.

The region has these and other invasive species.

Further reading:

With invasives on the menu, an endangered bird thrives | Anthropocene.pdf

Manual plantas invasoras.pdf

Invasive species prioritisation.pdf

base de datos GEF EEI.xlsx