Invasive species

We do not focus on “introduced” species or neophytes, as it is a novel, reconstructed ecosystem, constantly reshaped in the course of the last 100 years. The threshold and timelines between “introduced” and “native” is difficult, if not impossible, to establish, like a baseline for their control.

The major “introduced” species is European-origin people, leading to other “exotics”.

The term “exotic” or “introduced” usually means recent introductions. As no information exists on the ecosystem of the beginning of the XX century (pre-fires), it is difficult to certify that some “native” fauna and flora are not results of these fires and European-originated colonisation.


The damaging character of the invasiveness of some species is greatly facilitated by the deplorable state of the ecosystem, brutal recent annihilation of “native” species, continuous human pressure and climate change.


Invasive species in the PPAP, requiring control:


Plants:

The most damaging: Rosa mosqueta (“exotic” or “native”, depending on the baseline)

= Rosa rubiginosa.

It is linked to cows’ presence: in the PPAP where previously there were only sheep, there is no rosa mosqueta. If cows were grazing - rosa mosqueta appeared. Confirmed by work of interns from Chilean universities. Main possible entry points of cattle into the PPAP now, and therefore threat of transport of rosa mosqueta seeds - the border with the Laguna San Rafael national park.

Considered as valuable “native Chilean rose” in Europe (see skin treatments made of rosa mosqueta). Still planted in the region for its fruit. The way to deal with it: cut, fertilze the soil, let grass grow.

Ecologia de rosa mosqueta.pdf

Rosa mosqueta: una planta invasora que compite con la vegetación nativa | GEFEEI.pdf

Rosa_canina-eglanteria-multiflora.pdf ;


Lodgepole pine = Pinus contorta (“exotic”): planted extensively in

the region by forestry business until recently, not any longer

due to its invasive character;


Retamo = Ulex europaeus (partly “exotic”);


Calafate rastrero = Berberis empetrifolia (part of “native” cycle);

Calafate = Berberis mycrophylla (part of “native” cycle);


Chapel, meki, mata negra = Escallonia virgata

    (part of “native” cycle);


ChocoLupinus spp (“exotic”). An ecosystem engineer,

can change plant populations, a legume, germinates in almost

all climates, not sensitive to droughts but sensitive to frost,

competitive advantage over natives under drought leading to

synergetic effects and advantages under climate change,

competitive advantages as proliferates by roots as well. Can

be controlled by sheep grazing only if grazed intensively, in large fields sheep avoid lupins.


Herbarium of the PPAP


Insects:

Yellowjackets, wasps (“exotic”).

European bumblebee (“exotic”).


Animals

Stray dogs are becoming a real problem in the region, severely damaging the originally wild animals.

Mice (“native”) : hantavirus carrier.

Salmon, escaped from fish farms : unfit for human consumption (antibiotic), pose human health risk, creating a sanitary crisis.


Some other invasive species like Aromo Australiano, rainbow trout, mink, are found in the region but not in the APPP.


Invasives not requiring control:


Chaura = Gaultheria Phillyreifolia and Gaultheria spp (part of “native” cycle);

Murtilla = Pernettya mucronata  part of “native” cycle).


Introduced non-invasive species, not requiring control:


Horses - energize the earth, as in acupuncture, according to Rudolf Steiner's biodynamic theory, help with plant energy;

European hare - important link in the foodchain of the local foxes.

With invasives on the menu, an endangered bird thrives | Anthropocene.pdf


Some lessons learned:

  1. Disturbances favor invasive plants;

  2. Plant community has not effect on invasives, dealing with the problem:

  3. clean soil from invasive material,

  4. revegetate a.s.a.p.,

  5. adapt practices to target invasives,

  6. pay attention to species under revegetation.


Further reading:

Manual plantas invasoras.pdf

Invasive species prioritisation.pdf

Base de datos GEF EEI.xlsx

Lupins invasive

November 2018