Patagonian Andes

Inert (abiotic) matter - geomorphology

Some facts:

  1. In the anthropocene inert matter (geomorphology and its evolution) does not influence life as previously.

  2. The valley is a geologically young valley


Moraine collapse:                                                                                                                  

The moraine containing the lake below Glacier Mapuche collapsed in the year 2000;

More than 2 million cubic metres of soil and rock material cover approximately 40 ha;

Some rocks are 10 metres high;

The soil cover is very fragile, and this is one reason we ask people going to lake Leones to stay on the trail.

The terraces:

13,000 years ago, Lago General Carrera was 450 metres above present level of 201 m asl;

It drained in seven steps - the delta from each level is now visible as a terrace;

In the Leones valley, the last three levels are visible close to the lake at 320 m, 420 m and 450 m asl.


Photos                                        Les terrasses du lac Carrera .ppt


Glacier Leones:

The glacier Leones melts (thickness) of 6 cm / day in summer and 1cm / day in winter at 1300m of altitude.

The terminal moraines: the boulders at Lago General Carrera are 11,300+/-600 years old, and the one at Lago Leones are 1,000- 2,500 old (see papers below).

Publications on local geomorphology:

In order to prevent damage to live Nature from research of inert abiotic factors, potential researchers are asked to observe national laws, in this case - property laws, protecting a conservation and ecosystem restoration Project, and seek prior explicit advice of landowners to enter into their private property and Project for any research purposes. Publications are listed taking into consideration caveats re: scientific investigations.


The valley:

Northern icefield monitoring in the Project.


Expeditions in the valley: The 40th anniversary of: The “New Zealand Patagonian Expedition 1969 ;

Tararua Patagonian Expedition 1969-70.pdf ;


Glaciar León, Chilean Patagonia: late-Holocene chronology and geomorphology ;


25 kyr luminescence date for a terminal moraine in the Leones valley .pdf ;


North Leones Glacier Retreat and new Landslide, Patagonia, Chile ;


Dangers of lake failures in Patagonia ;


The timing and nature of recession of outlet glaciers of Hielo Patagonico Norte, Chile ;


Holocene glaciations of Hielo Patagónico (Patagonia Icefield).pdf ;


Recent mountain glacier retreat ;


Geoconservación en los valles Exploradores y Leones.pdf .


Local glaciers’ melting:

When visiting or studying a glacier we seriously contribute to its melting.


Glaciers in Chile 'melt at fastest rate in 350 years' ;


Shrinking Patagonian Glaciers  ;


Patagonia glacial retreat.pdf  ;


Rapid thinning of the late Patagonian Ice Sheet.pdf  ;


Northern Patagonian Icefield.pdf ;


Some glaciers may already be functionally extinct /


Glacier fluctuations in extratropical South America during the past 1000 years.pdf  ;


Ice elevation and areal changes of glaciers from the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile.pdf  ;


The Patagonian Icefields: Landforms, Sediments and Glacier Fluctuations.pdf  ;


The area:

Tectonic control on rock uplift, exhumation, and topography above an oceanic ridge collision: Southern Patagonian Andes (47°S), Chile ;


El Volcan Hudson ;


1991 eruptions of Cerro Hudson, Chile.pdf


Quaternary lacustrine braid deltas on Lake General Carrera in southern Chile.pdf ;


The Andes: Lost tectonic history recovered from Earth’s deep mantle  ;


Sociedad Geológica de Chile reconoce a Aysén como la región con más geositios del país.pdf .


Cold desertification of the area, cryo-expulsion, soil destructurisation : Degradation ; Soil .

Glaciers Baker watershed

World Glacier Monitoring System