Patagonian Andes

Inert (abiotic) matter, geomorphology

Some facts:

  1. In the anthropocene inert matter (geomorphology and its evolution) does not influence life as previously.

  2. The valley is a geologically young valley.

  3. Located on the South American tectonic plate, South of Chile ridge, therefore not affected by the Nazca plate too much.


Moraine collapse:                                                                                                                  

The moraine containing the lake below Glacier Mapuche collapsed in 2001;

More than 2 million cubic meters of soil and rock material from it cover approximately 40 ha;

Some rocks are 10 metres high;

The soil cover and the biotope are very fragile.

The terraces:

13,000 years ago, Lago General Carrera was 450 metres above present level of 201 m asl;

It drained in seven steps - the delta from each level is now visible as a terrace;

In the Leones valley, the last three levels are visible close to the lake at 320 m, 420 m and 450 m asl.


Photos                                        Les terrasses du lac Carrera .ppt


Glacier Leones (the big chunk of ice across the lake at the end of the valley):

The glacier melts (thickness) 6 cm/day in summer and 1cm/day in winter at 1300 m altitude.

The terminal moraines: the boulders at Lago General Carrera are 11,300+/-600 years old, and the one at Lago Leones are 1,000- 2,500 old (see papers below).

Publications on local geomorphology:

In order to prevent damage to live Nature from research of inert abiotic factors, potential researchers are asked to observe national laws, in this case - property laws, protecting a conservation and ecosystem restoration project, and seek prior explicit advice of landowners to enter into their private property and project for any research purposes. Publications are listed taking into consideration caveats re: scientific investigations.


The valley:

Northern icefield monitoring in the Project ;


Expeditions in the valley: The 40th anniversary of: The “New Zealand Patagonian Expedition 1969 ;

Tararua Patagonian Expedition 1969-70.pdf ;


Glaciar León, Chilean Patagonia: late-Holocene chronology and geomorphology ;


25 kyr luminescence date for a terminal moraine in the Leones valley .pdf ;


North Leones Glacier Retreat and new Landslide, Patagonia, Chile ;


Dangers of lake failures in Patagonia ;


The timing and nature of recession of outlet glaciers of Hielo Patagonico Norte, Chile ;


Holocene glaciations of Hielo Patagónico (Patagonia Icefield).pdf ;


Recent mountain glacier retreat ;


Local glaciers’ melting:

When visiting or studying a glacier we seriously contribute to its melting.

Or when buying bottled water exported from the Leones glacier’s aquifer, by a company listed on the New York (Wall Street) stock exchange, who owns the water in Leones river and in its aquifers and is registered in a fiscal paradise.


The evolution of the Patagonian Ice Sheet from 35 ka to the present day (PATICE) ;


Glaciers in Chile 'melt at fastest rate in 350 years' ;


Shrinking Patagonian Glaciers  ;


Patagonia glacial retreat.pdf  ;


Rapid thinning of the late Patagonian Ice Sheet.pdf  ;


Northern Patagonian Icefield.pdf ;


Some glaciers may already be functionally extinct ;


Glacier fluctuations in extratropical South America during the past 1000 years.pdf  ;


Ice elevation and areal changes of glaciers from the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile.pdf  ;


The Patagonian Icefields: Landforms, Sediments and Glacier Fluctuations.pdf  ;


The area:

Tectonic control on rock uplift, exhumation, and topography above an oceanic ridge collision: Southern Patagonian Andes (47°S), Chile ;


1991 eruptions of Cerro Hudson, Chile.pdf


Quaternary lacustrine braid deltas on Lake General Carrera in southern Chile.pdf ;


The Andes: Lost tectonic history recovered from Earth’s deep mantle  ;


Cold desertification of the area, cryo-expulsion, soil destructurisation : Degradation ; Soil .

Glaciers Baker watershed

World Glacier Monitoring System

The project is working with rights of living nature matter, not inert matter: if it is not alive, it does not have too much value.

At present, the anthropogenic transformation of matter on Earth is vectoring from living matter into inert matter, which will never be returned to life, whether it’s for the sake of developing “green” technologies, instruments to study the decline of life or any other purpose. The amount of man-made materials exceed the amount of living biomass on Earth, therefore the former is well placed to protect itself.