Restoration : the act or process of returning something to its original condition by

                                         repairing it, cleaning it, etc.; the act of bringing back something that existed before ;

                                         the act of returning something that was stolen or taken.


                                        Institutional definitions under the 2021-2030 UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration :

                                        “Ecological restoration - the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been

                              degraded, damaged, or destroyed”;

“Ecological restoration is an intentional activity that initiates or accelerates the recovery of an ecosystem with respect to its health, integrity and sustainability. Restoration attempts to return an ecosystem to its historic trajectory. Restoration represents an indefinitely long-term commitment of land and resources, and a proposal to restore an ecosystem requires thoughtful deliberation”, SER (Society for ecological restoration).

Restorations are done where the state of ecosystem has been declined, damaged or destroyed by human activity. Restoration actions aim at restoring the ecosystem as close to its natural state as possible”;

“Aim is to bring back some of the structures and processes typical of natural ecosystems but lost due to human activity”, State Forest Enterprise, Finland.

It’s a private nature repair project, therefore it applies it’s personal definitions, custom-fit to the purpose:

Restoration for live nature: the process of undertaking feasible steps to help nature to recover according to its needs and laws, by, first, reviving our relation to land, and the commitment to land, the respect for nature and its development cycles,  the acceptance of primordial role of nature and of natural law. Restore respect for law. Help nature to heal itself. All definitions are evolutive.

“You can never step into the same river, for new waters are always flowing on you”, Heraclitus.

For whom: the plants and animals, present and future. Meeting their needs. Life resides in live nature,

                   not in man-transformed inert objects or images.



  1. Nature regeneration, restitution to nature;

  2. Restoration of the self-regulating, auto-recovery, recuperation and adaptation capacities and potential of the network of biotopes;

  3. Testing ground for restoration techniques after total clearing fires.


  1. the first and most important: change of land use, from agricultural to nature restoration and “growing nature”;

  2. protect vulnerable areas e.g. wetlands and slopes, initially by removing all livestock and horses;

  3. complete removal of all livestock;

  4. reforestation with native trees;

  5. reestablish native trees, bushes and ground covers - a priority, especially on vulnerable slopes;

  6. develop local seed collection and a trees’ reproduction facility in situ;

  7. stabilize, and then restore, eroded areas;

  8. wetland restoration;

  9. dry prairies restoration;

  10. control the spread of, and eliminate where practical, invasive species;

  11. allow and protect natural regrowth, e.g. on the valley floor, areas where there is good tree cover at present;

  12. manage the pines as a resource;

  13. manage limited pasture areas for horses, if needed;

  14. remove artificial barriers (i.e. old fences);

  15. limit to the minimum the use of technical means in practical restoration;

  16. avoid relying on scientific proof, ecological restoration is a science of crisis;

  17. use of techniques having proven results;

  18. anticipation of abrupt changes of climate in the area, due to the predicted sudden glaciers melting in the region;

  19. help biotopes under restoration and rehabilitation to adapt to the increasing positive feedback of the ecosystems.

Agricultural Land Abandonment as a Global Land-Use Change Phenomenon

Protect restoration efforts by:

  1. active and continued de-farming;

  2. monitoring the unauthorised use of the property

   by the tourism and other industries;

  1. control and limit other harmful external impacts

   (e.g. cows from the neighbouring San Rafael national park);

  1. fire control and prevention measures;

  2. develop measures aimed at gaining independence in restoration

    and recording the experience;

  1. arrange for long-term protection by available legal and other means:

   restoration does not give immediate results, it takes decades or

   centuries to see the conservation advantages;

On personal level:

  1. acquiring personally max. knowledge on all aspects of ecological restoration; 

  2. embedding flexibility in all measures;

  3. ignoring mass promotional reforestation campaigns, it is obvious that the Bonn or 20x20 challenges will not be met.

Restoration for Nature

Ownership of land is a responsibility for the land you are trusted with


  1. Reforestation

  2. Bosque nativo

  3. Other

  4. Monitoring

  5. Models


  1. Pichimahuida principle;

  2. Integrated approach, what affects one affects all, private landowners usually apply holistic approach to restoration;

  3. Focus on vision and purpose, not goal or target;

  4. Restore not only the essence but also the composition and interlinkages;

  1. Principle of reparation: assume our responsibility for the anthropogenic destruction;

  2. Principle of responsibility in ecological restoration, we are dealing with living beings;

  3. Long-term accountability in restoration is a key factor;

  4. You need to live with the land you restore, it’s impossible to do it from an office or by occasional visits;

  1. Area-based restoration;                                                                                    Natura parendo vincitur

  2. Non-deterioration, Land Degradation Neutrality ;

  3. “Nature knows best” (third principle of ecology): observing and copying nature, restoring the guiding role of nature;

  4. Adapting to nature, not trying to adapt nature to us;

  5. Help to auto-restoration (natural regeneration) of the biotopes is privileged;

  6. Experience-based restoration;

  7. Restoring to the future: there is no alternative for that approach, as there is no information on the pre-exiting ecosystem from original peoples (no original peoples left in the area), no information on local animal or insect species that might have disappeared. Only recent drastic destructions can orient in what can be recreated (with the exception of soil);

  8. Avoid use of some common to the institutional approach concepts like “ecosystem services”, “function”, “baseline”, “biodiversity” (as an objective), etc.

  9. Reference ecosystems are not important in the era of climate change;

  10. Auto-regulation always works better than control, in particular in the development of nature.


For private restoration:

  1. Little (if any) recognition of private (by private landowners) ecological restoration efforts;

  2. Absence of tools for private landowners for direct information exchange on restoration issues;

  3. Unequal funding and other opportunities for private landowners and NGOs, constant disregard of private actors;

  4. Restoring to the future: how to protect the momentum on private land?

  5. Ecological amnesia and crisis of baselines lead to the fact that current generations view the degraded nature as completely normal. What shall we restore to ? How will the future generations continue restoration to what they have never seen or experienced?

One of the means of creating a more robust methodology for ecological restoration

involves reducing the gap between ecological theory and restoration practices.


  1. Linkages of the area with surrounding areas (e.g. damage from cows in the neighbouring national park San Rafael; invasive species; mass tourism);

  2. Local institutional climate: virtually no recognition of the disastrous effects of colonisation on local nature; with the exception of limited possibilities of the reforestation programme by Conaf - absence of local and regional institutional or other support for non-commercial restoration or reforestation; absence of acknowledgement by local communities of the value of soil and nature restoration for the region; support of uncontrolled mass “adventure” tourism; local bonuses for counter-restoration practices like uncontrolled cattle grazing (including in national parks), export of sphagnum from wetlands, local subsidies for clearing of the forests for livestock; low level of law enforcement, in particular in forest law; tolerance of illegal logging; absence of safeguards from the expanding phenomenon of “grants hunters”.

The rewards of nature restoration


  1. Objective

  2. Legal

  3. Lessons

  4. Collaboration

  5. Publications

  6. Friends